Effect of Interventions on Infant Mortality Rates


CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY

Introduction

The information provided in this article and the data have mainly dealt with the birth and infant death that has been provided by the CDC(center for disease control) and NCHS (preventions national center for health statistics).  The information presented in the database links the death certificate and the death certificate for any child born and dies in America. The main reason for having the data relation was to provide enough and sufficient sources of the information. For the 1-year-old infants, the mortality rate that was calculated per 100,000 cause of death for live births and other determinants was 1,000 live births. The information pertaining the reasons for the death was grouped in accordance to the Tenth Revision of International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems.Leading CODs were ranked using the conventions outlined by NCHS and described in detail else here. Research lacks long-term assessments of adherence regarding education provided within hospital settings (Nettles, 2005). Other limitations were a lack of randomized sample (Christofides, 2005), (Columbia & Herrmann, 2010), (Marshall, 1996). Samples were limited to high-risk women only (Lee, Ayers, & Holden, 2012), and studies were predominately surveyed in urban communities (Revi et al., 2014). Systematic reviews were utilized due to minimal research regarding interventions to reduce infant mortality within the restricted time frame (Macdorman & Mathews, 2008). Overall, systematic reviews were useful in identifying interventions for child mortality, and health care workers are familiar with education topics to discuss with different populations. However, systematic reviews were not helpful when trying to obtain statistics and effectiveness of research interventions.

Research Questions

The PICOT study question in this assessment is: does the effort of helping the infants and the mothers at risk produce any fruits of success in the first year of the baby’s life in the United States of America? The risk factor issues and preventative measures are enhanced to ensure the successful follow-up and maintenance of these problems. The detailed studies had to be done to accomplish the understanding of this field to enable proper precautions have been put into considerations.It has also ensured the effectiveness of the system hence guarantee the reduction of the infant mortality rate.

Description of the Participants

Some limitations were experienced throughout the program study. The research involved singleton babies only (Mason, Humphreys, & Kent, 2004). The study lacked the long-term monitoring and evaluation of an attachment regarding education provided within hospital settings. There was also lack of randomized sampling. Samples that were available were limited to high-risk women only, and the studies were also based on the survey in urban communities. Systematic reviews were utilized due to minimal research regarding interventions to reduce infant mortality within the restricted time frame. Overall, systematic reviews were useful in identifying interventions for child mortality, and health care workers are familiar with education topics to discuss with different populations (Brown & Wissow, 2009). However, systematic reviews were not helpful when trying to obtain statistics and effectiveness of research interventions.

Instrumentation

Levels of evidence varied with different research studies. 43% of the research articles were Level Six: Single Descriptive or Qualitative studies. Twenty-eight percents (28%) were Level Five and Systematic Reviews of Descriptive and Qualitative Studies. Cohort and Case Control studied at Level Four and made up 14% of the reviews. Finally, 9% of the studies generated from Level Three evidence. Controlled Trials without Randomization and Randomized Control Trials accounted 6% of Level Two evidence based practice. Sample sizes ranged from five (MacCallum, Widaman, Zhang, & Hong, 1999) to 1,335,471 subjects (Stockwell & Peterson, 2002). Half of the studies were conducted at single sites, while 35% included multiple states. Fifteen percent of the studies were conducted nationwide. Overall, studies providing education on reducing unsafe behaviors such as smoking, substance use, and lack of contraceptive use began to show that safe sleep increased along with patient compliance. Promoting healthy outcomes by increasing health behaviors should decrease IMR, and it is evident that with the corporation from the patients and all the environment,   lower rates of these problems are experienced.

Ethical Cznsiderations

The current state of research continues to showcase IMRs throughout counties, states, and

Nations. The Research has been focused on finding the risk- factors related to infant mortality, but more intervention studies about maintenance and long-term effects need to be conducted to support the practice. Hospitals are major locations for creating awareness among the patient and also for the researchers to doing their research (Zawadzka, 2002). New and major topics of discussion are happening in the facilities among the many workers, and the families that are immediate compliance is noted in research to evaluate efficacy. Other new interventions in reducing infant mortality include centering and inter-birth spacing. Research has begun to assess the effect of patient education and prevention. Both responses are explained below.

CHAPTER 4. DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS, AND RESULTS

Introduction

Infant mortality is prevalent in the United States especially for children below the age of one. However, several interventions have been made to reduce the rate of infant mortality in the United States. The research, therefore, was to find out whether the interventions reduced infant mortalities depending on the statistics obtained from the national bureau as well as from a few selected hospitals.

Data Collection Procedures

The study will seek to collect the data from the statistics of infant mortalities from the national bureau of statistics and deduce conclusions based on the trends from the statistics. Also, some of the data about infant mortalities will be collected from a few selected hospitals where the cause of death of the babies can easily be determined. This is to verify the credibility of the systems in place and also to enhance the success of the study. Information will be obtained by different means including the observation of the institutions. This will ensure that first-hand information has been collected providing quality information. The application of questionnaire also will be utilized to ensure that data has been gathered from the different sectors, this will be directed to the patients and the health officials. Confidentiality will be one of the key priority for the people that shall be involved in the data collection (Bourke & Wessely, 2008).

Data Analysis and Results

From the results, it can be known whether SIDS or suffocation is what leads to the majority of infant deaths. Other factors that will be taken into account in the analysis will be the weather premature births led to the many deaths of children in the United States. The contribution of teen pregnancies and level of education will also be analyzed to determine their role from the statistics obtained from the hospitals. A different method of data preparations will be utilized to make the best out of the study research. This will enhance the understanding of the possible outcomes. The use of the graphs and charts will be utilized to realize this activity application of tables also will be among the analysis methods.

Figure 1; Major Causes of Infant Deaths.

From the above diagram, the level of premature birth is high, and it accounts for 58% of the total number of the infant’s death. This is much far greater than the level of education factor that only accounts for 9%. This gives a clear understanding that there is enough and qualified personnel to conduct the services of the child birth.

Levels of evidence varied with different research studies. 43% of the research articles were Level Six: Single Descriptive or Qualitative studies. Twenty-eight percents (28%) were Level Five and Systematic Reviews of Descriptive and Qualitative Studies. Cohort and Case Control studied at Level Four and made up 14% of the reviews. Finally, 9% of the studies generated from Level Three evidence. Controlled Trials without Randomization and Randomized Control Trials accounted 6% of Level Two evidence based practice